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easily discharge directly onto the city docks. The result was greatly expanded shipping operations close to the city centre and near the various industries and trades there from the 19th century. Ironically, by the late 20th century large scale shipping activities again moved to the lower harbour where specially built deep water facilities were developed at Ringaskiddy. Citizens of Cork saw gradual changes in the type of ships using their port over the centuries. Wooden hulled sailing vessels were the usual form of transport for people and cargo until the advent of steamships in the early 19th century. As early as the 1820s there were paddlesteamers regularly using the port, acting as ferries within the harbour itself, to other ports in Ireland and on routes to Britain. Steam and then diesel gradually overtook sail, although wooden cargo sailing ships still called to the port as late as the 1930s. From the mid-19th century iron and steel began to be used instead of wood in the construction of ships and, again, over time fewer and fewer wooden vessels were seen. During the 19th century Cork had successful shipbuilding enterprises constructing wooden and later iron vessels. They also built yachts and boats to cater for the popular recreation of pleasure boating in the harbour area.

Cargo vessel at Anderson’s Quay, Cork, c.1930s.

Technical information about Innisfallen, 1939.

Innisfallen ferry, 1948.

B&I Ferry brochure, 1951.

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